BBA 1st Sem. Environmental Studies Notes
BBA 1st Sem. Environmental Studies Notes :-
Q. 1. Explain importance of environmental education in the present day context.
Ans . Importance of Environmental Education: Environment belongs to all and is thus important for all, whatever be occupation or age of a person, he or she will be affected by environment and will also affect environment by his or her deeds. Main importance of environmental education are as follows:
1. Environmental education is important for economy and welfare of human society.
2. In this age of science and technology, ceo-friendly technology or ceo-technology is need of hour, because it promotes blending of traditional knowledge and technology with modern technologies. It can he achieved only through proper environmental education.
3. It helps us in careful handling issues like pollution menace, over exploitation of natural resources, food security and sustainable development.
4. Richness use of agrochemicals has degraded environment and has distributed ecological balance. Environmental education helps us to find ways and means to maintain ecological balance.
5. Environmental education demonstrates how man can derive benefits from environment without destroying it.
6. Environmental education trains us to conserve our fast depleting natural resources,
7. Environment has been a source of happiness for man and time has come to preserve this happiness for nran by imparting environmental education.
8. Environmental education helps in inculcating attitudes and values, conductive to environment protection and understanding of inter-dependence of nature and man.
9, It creates and increases civil sense and an awareness of economic, political and ecological inter-dependence of modern world.
10. It helps to understand different food chains and the ecological balance in nature.
Q. 2. Discuss classification of environment briefly.
What are segments of environments? (2006
Define environment. Discuss in brief four segments of environment. (‘2008-09)
Ans. Environment: The environment is a greek word meaning ‘surroundings’. It is a complex of many things such as light, temperature, water, air, soil etc. which surrounds an organism. The green fields trees, shrubs. ponds, lakes, rivers, forests, blue sky and the various systems existing in the nature of all constitute the environment.
Classification of Environment: Environment is considered as a composite term for the conditions in which organism lives. It includes both biotic and abiotic substances, energy and forces e.g., temperature. light, water, air, soil and other organisms. Environment can be defined in many ways some of its commonly used definitions are:
1. It is the totality of all social, biological and physical or chemical individually as well as collectively that compose the nature and man-made surroundings.
2. Ii. refers to total sum of conditions which surround man at a given point in space and time.
3. It is the representative of physical components of the earth wherein man is the important factor influencing his environment.
In general environment can be described as the physical surroundings and conditions affecting the lives of people and animals. It consists of the following components:
1. Atmosphere : The atmosphere is the protective blanket of gases surrounding the earth, which sustains life on earth and saves it from the hostile environment of outer space. lt absorbs most of the cosmic rays from outer space and a major portion of the electromagnetic from the sun. It transmits only near ultraviolet, visible, near infrared radiation and radio waves while filtering out tissue-damaging ultraviolet radiation. The atmosphere plays a key role in maintaining the heat balance of the earth, through absorption of infrared radiation emitted by the sun and re-emitted from the earth, The major components of the atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen, while the minor components are argon. carbon dioxide, and some trace gases.
The atmosphere is the source of oxygen and carbon dioxide. It also supplies nitrogen with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and ammonia-manufacturing plants, utilise to yeild chemically bound nitrogen essential for life. Furthermore, it is a vital carrier of water from oceans to land, as part of the hydrological cycle.
2. Hydrosphere: The hydrosphere includes all types of water resources-oceans. seas, rivers, lakes, streams, reservoirs, glaciers, polar ice caps and ground water. About 97% of the earth’s water supply is in the oceans, where the high salt content does not permit its use for human consumption. About 2% of the water resource is locked in the polar ice caps and glaciers, while only 1% is available as fresh water for human consumption and other uses.
The major uses of water are for irrigation (30%), thermal power plants (50%),while other uses are domestic (7%) and industrial consumption (—12%).
3. Lithosphere: This is the outer mantle of the solid earth, consisting of minerals occurring in the earth’s crust and the soil. The earth’s crust comprises of a complex mixture of minerals, organic matter, air and water. the soil is the most important part of the lithosphere.
4. Biospere: This denotes the realm of living organisms and their interactions with the environment, viz., atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Both the biosphere and environment are influenced considerably by each other. Thus, the oxygen and carbon dioxide I levels of the atmosphere depends entirely on the plant kindom. As a matter of fact, green plants alone are responsible for the accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere, through photosynthesis and decay, the original atmosphere having been devoid of oxygen. The biological world, in general, is intimately related with energy flows in the environment and water chemistry.
Q.3 . Describe need of public awareness about environment.
Ans. Unthoughtful and unabated consumption of natural resources for different purposes such as development of science and technology, transport and communication, agriculture and industry, material and energy, comfort and pleasure has depleted environmental resources. It has degraded vita] life supporting systems like air, water and sail, and has disturbed delicate ecological balance. Thus to improve deteriorated environment and to avoid further pollution. human beings have a great responsibility. For that, they have to be conscious about environment-friendly needs. Individuals arc to be involved in process of improving environment.
As beginning of life on earth about 2.6 billion years ago, numerous species of organisms have evolved, flourished and vanished. Their fossils are yet to be observed to record their existence in historical past. Gradually in stages, a very large number of organisms of different shapes and sizes, colors and kinds and modes of living were evolved. Among them mankind became dominant species because of his brain.
Because of vase capabilities, multi-activity, performance and genuine or non-genuine eagerness, mankind has been responsible for disturbing environment. Sometimes, it may he for the sake of comfort by using air-conditioners and refrigerators, that cause ozone layer depletion and sometimes for the sake of curiosity for excellence such as by developing rockets, missiles, aeroplanes etc.
While, now the people are to be awakened and made aware to protect global environment by exercising following actions:
1. By not cutting trees and using timber for aesthetic pleasure such as decoration at’ drawing rooms and houses etc.
2. By not extracting unnecessarily and exhaustively natural resources such as underground water, minerals etc.
3. By preserving greeneries on a vast area of land.
4. By not harnessing too much energy such as from burning of fossil fuels.
5. By formulating and obeying the moral codes meant for achieving a better environment.
6. By maintaining conventional environment within seas and oceans.
Finally, people should be approached to understand, conserve and manage environment and ‘ts resources. Lastly we should not forget that preservation of environment is most necessary for survival of living beings on earth.
Q. 4. What are the importance of environmental studies? Explain in brief. (2007)
Ans. Importance of Environmental Studies: Since ancient days; the environment (that is the nature)has been held in high esteem. A large number of people uphold it as god and worship it the various elements of nature. Importance of environmental studies lies in the fact that by being well-acquainted with nature one can lead a healthy, spiritual and long life. Such studies help us to maintain good environment all through in our vicinity. The requirements of a good environment are the following:
- Pure Airmts : The air should be pure and free from undesired ingredients uiz. harmful gases, suspended atters, etc. Generally the following limits of various ingredients are acceptable to maintain quality of air.
(i) Carbon monoxide (CO) = ug/m3
(ii Sulphur dioxide (SO2) =30 ug/ m3
(iii) Nitrogen oxide (NO2) 30ig/m3
(iv) Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) = 100 .*g/m3
(b) Pure Water: Drinking water should be free from bacteria and other pollutants. Generally, the water containing following ingredients are acceptable for human consumption.
(i) Colour : transparent
(ii) Taste: none
(iii) pH value 7
(iv) Hardness 19 ppm ( 200 to 300 mg\liter)
(v) Turbidity = 5 to 10 ppm on silica scale
(vi) Odour intensity = threshold number should not exceed 1
(vii) Acidity4 ppm
- Pure Food: Food should normally be free from the had effects of fertilizers, pesticides, chemicals, dirty water and adulteration.
(d) Health: Importance of a pollution-free environment can also be judged by following Illustrations. If the environment is polluted the health of rnankind\living deteriorate and they may be affected by critical diseases as given below.
(i) Air-borne diseases
• asthma, cough, bronchitis due to SO2
• guiddiness, defects of nervous system, gametotoxicity due to Pb.
• cancer, lung and kidney problems unconsciousness due to CO.
• chronic fibrosis, emphysea bronchoPfleUmQfl due to NO and NO2.
• nasal cavity, bronchitis, respiratory problems due to suspended particles.
• eye watering, red eyes, breathing trouble due to smoke.
(ii) Water-borne diseases
• cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever due to bacterial infections,
• hepatitis, poliomyelitis due to viral infections.
• amoebic dysentery due to protozoal infections.
BBA 1st Semester Notes | Question Paper
|BBA 1st Semester Notes Question Paper|
|Bookkeeping & Accounting||Click||Click|
|Fundamental of Management||Click||Click|
|Principles of Economics||Click||Click|