Concept an Introduction Nature of Motivation Notes
Concept an Introduction Nature of Motivation Notes :-
Motivation AN INTRODUCTION
Motivation is an important function which every manager performs for enthusing people to work for accomplishment of organisational objectives. It is an important factor which encourages giving their best of performance and help in reaching organisational goals. It is a cognitive variable that affects human behaviour. Motivation can not be seen directly but its implication can be seen in the behaviour of the person. Likert has called motivation as core of management. Effective directing of people is a key to organisational effectiveness both at organisational and individual level. A strong positive motivation will enable increased output of employee but negative motivation will reduce their performance.
CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION
The term motivation has been derived from Latin word “mover” which means “to move”. It means anything that initiates or sustains an activity. These days’ scholars have their own concept of motivation and they include various terms like motives, needs, wants, drives, desires, wishes, incentives, etc. to define motivation.
Motive can be defined as an inner state that energizes, activates or moves and directs, or channelizes behaviour towards goals. It is psychological force within an individual that sets him in motion for achievement of certain goals or satisfaction of certain needs. Motivation has been defined by various scholars. Some of the definitions are:
According to Michael. J. Jucius, “Motivation is an act of stimulating someone or one self to get desired
course of action, to push the right button to get desired reaction.”
According to Dubin, “Motivation is a complex force starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. Motivation is something that moves a person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiative.”
According to Stephen P Robbins, “Motivation is a willingness to exert high level of effort towards
organisational goals, conditioned by effort, ability to satisfy some individual need.”
According to The Encyclopedia of Management, “Motivation refers to degree of readiness in an
organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of nature and locus of forces, including the degree of readiness.”
Therefore in simple words motivation can be defined as willingness towards the accomplishment of a goal or need.
NATURE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is a psychological phenomenon which generates within an individual. When a person has certain needs he starts working more to satisfy those needs. Following characteristics of motivation can clarify its nature.
1. Based on motives: Motivation is based on individual motives which are internal to the individual Motives provide activating thrust towards reaching a goal that comes from the feelings when individual lack something.
2. Motivation is a psychological phenomenon : The process of motivation is mainly concerned with needs, desires, expectation, confidence, satisfaction that are psychological phenomenon. The psychological make up of every individual is different from others therefore it is very difficult to find out what can motivate the person towards desired goals.
3. Motivation cannot be easily observed: It is not actually possible to make direct observation of motivation can be observed interactions which constitute their behaviour in terms of underlying motives and satisfaction.
4. Goal oriented process: Motives are directed towards goals. Motivation has great deal of influence on the human behaviour. Goal directed behaviour is a reason due to which that behaviour takes place.
5. Motivation is dynamic and situational : The motives, goals, behaviour are all dynamic in nature The needs, drives, expectation of person keep changing with the time; therefore motivation is a dynamic process.
6. Motivation is related to satisfaction: Whenever a particular need of individual is fulfilled he feels extremely satisfied. The satisfaction is associated results of award or punishment which are based on past experiences.
7. Person is motivated in totality : All individual in the organisation have various goals and their needs are interrelated. These affect their behaviour in several ways. Also feelings and needs are continuous process.
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is an important factor affecting individual performance. All organisational facilities will go waste in the lack of motivated people to utilize these facilities effectively. Every superior in the organisation must motivate his subordinates for the right types of behaviour. Diagnosing human behaviour and analyzing as to why people behave in a particular way is of prime importance in motivating them irrespective of the nature of the organisation because individual is the basic component of any organisation.
1. High performance level : Motivated employee put higher performance as compared to other employees. Better performance will also result in higher productivity. The cost of production can also be brought down if productivity is raised.
2. Low employee turnover and absenteeism: Motivated employees stay in the organisation and their absenteeism is quite low. High turnover and absenteeism create many problems in the organisation. When the employees are satisfied with their jobs and they are well motivated by offering them financial and non-financial incentives then they will not leave the job. The rate of absenteeism will also be low because they will try to increase their output.
3. Acceptability to change: Organisations are created in the society. Because of the changes in the society changes in technology, value system, etc. organisation has to incorporate hose changes to cope up with the requirement of the time. Generally, employees resist changes for fear of an adverse effect on their employment. When the employees are given various opportunities of development then they can easily adapt to new situations. If they are properly motivated, they accept, introduce, and implement these changes keeping the organisation on the right track of progress.
4. Better organisational image : Those enterprises which offer better monetary and non-monetary facilities to their employees have a better image among them. Due to better chance of man-power development, the employees will like to join such organisations.
5. Better industrial relations : A good motivational system will create job satisfaction among employees. The employment will offer employees better service conditions and various other incentives. There will be an atmosphere of confidence among employers and employees. There will be no conflict and cordial relations will be maintained among both sides.
TYPES OF NEEDS
There are many needs which an individual may have and there are various ways in which these may be classified. Needs may be a natural, biological phenomenon in an individual, or these may develop over the period of time through learning. Since these two types of needs emerge from two different sources these may be satisfied by different types of incentives. Thus needs may be grouped into three categories:
1. Primary needs
2. Secondary needs
3. General needs
1. Primary needs : Primary needs are also known as physiological, biological, basic, or unlearned needs. However, the term primary is more comprehensive as compared to other terms. Primary needs are animal drives which are essential for survival. These needs are common to all human beings, though their intensity may differ. Some of the needs are food, sex, sleep, air to breathe, satisfactory temperature, etc.
2. secondary needs : Secondary needs are not natural but are learned by the individual through his experience and interaction. Therefore, these are also called learned or derived needs. Emergence of these needs depend on learning. There may be different types of secondary needs like need for power, achievement, státus, affiliation, etc
3. General needs : There are a number of needs which lie in between the primary and secondary classifications. A need must not be learned but at the same time, it is not completely physiological. There are certain such needs like need for competence, curiosity, manipulation, affection, etc.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
When a manager wants to get more work from his subordinates then he will have to motivate them
for improving their performance. This will be done either by offering incentives or may be in the shape o
rewards or may be in the form of instilling fear in them and using force for getting desired work. The
following are the types of motivation:
(a) Positive Motivation
(b) Negative Motivation
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