BBA 1st Sem. Most Important Question Answer Environment Studies Notes
BBA 1st Sem. Most Important Question Answer Environment Studies Notes :-
UNIT – II
Q.1. Write an essay on water resources.
Ans. Water Resources : Water is most important constituent of living organism. It is widely used as solvent, for irrigation, navigation, industrial use, electricity production, domestic use, etc. 97.3% is salt water and rest is fresh water, this 2.7 % amounts to about 1.4 billion Km2 water.
Water exists in ‘solid, liquid and gas form. In solid state it is found as frozen ice in polar regions-as ice-caps at mountain peaks and in glaciers. In liquid form, it is present in oceans, lake rivers streams and as groundwater. In gaseous form, water is found in the atmosphere as vapour. About 77.2% water is permanently frozen. 22.4% as groundwater and soil moisture, 0.35% found in wetlands and lakes and 0.01% in rivers and streams.
The total volume of ground water found in underground reservoirs, called aquifers is 42.3x 1010 m3. Nowadays 25% of the groundwater is being used by men for various purposes. Water is mostly utilized in agriculture which amounts about 73% and to pressure on ground water. Excessive uncontrolled use of ground water is depleting. lowering the water level which may lead to salinisation water logging. alkalinisation of soils. Water demand is directly related to industrial use, agriculture use and population growth. The distribution of freshwater is not-uniform in all countries of the world. The pattern of use of water also varies in all countries. Steps should he taken to store runoff water.
India receives about 3 trillion m3 of water from rainfall. This highest in the world, but due to climatic changes and global warming rainfall is decreasing. It is a matter of great concern. Now-a-days, many parts of India are facing drought like situations. Fourteen major river system such as Ganga, Narmada, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, Bharhrnputra account for 85% surface flow and share 83% of drainage basis. Out of total annual precipitation, India.tilized only 10%.
Due to deforestation, many regions like Kalahandi, part of Orisa, Rajasthan. Maharashtra, I Karnataka face drought. The supply of drinking water is not adequate in many villages of India.
The water is continuously moving through various pathways from oceans to atmosphere from ice to river, lakes and ocean and from lakes, river, stream to oceans. Water also moves from. Lithosphere to biosphere. Water flows continuously between hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. This flow is called hydrological cycle.
According to UNO 12 million people do not have sufficient drinking water. Every year 2.2 million people die due to drinking of polluted water. About 70 million .people will feel shortage of water by 2050.
Disputes between States
(i) Kaveri water dispute between Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
(ii) Sane river dispute between LT.P., M.P. and Bihar.
(iii) Yamuna water dispute between LP., Haiyana, Delhi and Himachal.
(iv) Ravi-beas dispute between Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan.
Management of water resources
Management of water is most important. Management of water resources contains following points :
(i) Need for Management of sea water because of oil and other pollution of threats.
(ii) No wastage or misuse of water.
(iii) Pure water rnadeavujlab1e to man for various purposes.
(iv) Storage and distribution of water should be done scientifically.
(v) Stop the wastage of water from leaking taps and excessive irrigation.
(vi) Public awareness needed for optimism use of water.
(vii) Water should be treated b’ R.O,U-V, etc for drinking purpose.
(viii)Different water should be used for irrigation, bathing and cooking purpose.
(ix) Purify municipal waste water, domestic water and made it fit for use in agriculture and industry after removing toxic elements pollutants microbes and so on.
(x) Recharge ground water.
(xi) Develop technology to use sea water for drinking purpose.
(xii) Apply improve technology to increase water storage capacity and ground water utilization.
Importance of Forests
Forests are the land communities majorly of trees and other vegetation usually with a closed canopy. Forests are regarded as any land managed for the diverse purpose of forestry, whether covered with trees, shrubs, climbers, liauas etc. or not.
The forests serve the human being in the following manner:
- Production: Timber for building material, cabinets, fuel; bamboos, secondary products like gums, resines, wake, tanning materials, lac, grasses, etc.
- Protection: Protection of watersheeds, catchments and land against erosion.
- Recreation: Picnic resorts, sports, wildlife and bird watching.
- Industrial development: Raw materials for paper, rayon, hardboard, plywood. gums, resins, fruits and medicines, etc.
- Hygenic: Reduction of noise and pollution, purification of air by converting CO2 into O2
2770 of the earths’ surface, i.e., 3.4 Billion hectares of land is covered by forests. India has n1 19.39% actual forest while Indonacia has 61% of land as forest.
Forests are the major source of timber,. wood, fuel etc. Forests guard against erosion of land, damage of watersheds, flood and sedimentation. They provide shelter to wild life. Bamboo is known as poor man’s timber used as scaffolding, roofing, rafter, flooming, matting, basketry, etc. In India more than 100 species o1 bamboos are found: Bamboo wood is. used as ropes, cables of suspension bridge in forests, for furniture, umbrella handle and sports goods, etc. India bamboo is also used for making rayon, canes, paper etc. Medical plants are also found in forests. In India cold desert vegetation or Tibet plateau is present which includes more
an 15000 species of plants. North East “ne comparing of Assam, Tripura, etc., have 6700 endermic species present in Himalaya. .n or Western ghats of peninsular India. The tropical forests are considered as the North of Earth. Rain forests are known for regulating the global climate rainfall etc. They are known as treasure houses of food, medicines and commerce. The tropical rain forests are considered as primitive ecosystem of earth. Essential oils are obtained from certain forest plants used in manufacturing of soaps. pharamaceutical, cosmetics, confectionary, etc. The plants are mainly Eucalyptus, Vefevirea,santatum etc.
Forest are important in the life of tribal people as they provide food, shelter, medicine,clothing (skin) etc. Soil conservation is also done by forests. Forests draw subsoil water and send it out in the air by transpiration. Increased humidity is helpful for survival of’ live stock in a warm season.
Forest reduce pollution by absorbing CO2 from atmosphere. They have aesthetic value also. Forest is the Beauty of Earth.
Q. 2. Give an account of forest resources.
Ans. Forest Resources: The term forest has been derived from Latin word ‘Foris’ meaning outside-uncultivated or untended vegetable cover, especially the woody vegetation.
Forests constitute 90 c of the global biomass. These are natural ecosystems dominated by tree. About one-third of the world’s land surface is covered by forests, of which tropical forests constitute about 50 %.
Importance of Forests
(i) Protection of water sheds, catchments and land against erosion.
(ii) Regulate rainfall, humidity, temperature
(iii) Production of timber for buildings, fuel, bamboos and minor forest products, like gums, resins, waxes, tanning materials, lac, beedi leaves, grasses, latex, fruit, essential oils, fibers.
(iv) Reduction of noise.
(v) Reduction of pollution.
(vi) Purification of air by converting CO2 into O2, help in maintaining C02/02 balance.
(vii) Act as picnic resorts; sports, hiking, trekking, bird watching, wild life watchings.
(viii) Provides raw materials for paper, rayon, hardboards, plywood, beedi patta, medicines, etc. (ix) Regulative functions-In absorption, transformation of radiant energy into plant biomass.
(x) Regulates mineral nutrient cycles.
About 22.7 % of total land area of India is occupied by forests. In India 1. million hectares of forests are lost every year. In Asia 5 million hectares of forests in Asia are lost every year. India has lost 45 million hectares of good forest. The main factors for deforestation are an increase in human population and live stock which result in an increase in demand of timber, fuel wood; grazing, construction of roads and mining activities. In India, wood is used as fuel, paper, etc. Indonesia has 61% of its land under forest, Brazil has 58 % land under forest. Govt. of India brought 42nd constitutional amendments on 3/1/1977
48 A : Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life.
51 A : To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life and to have comparison for living creatures.
Minor Forest Products (MFP) are source of economic development of tribals and other people. A good number of persons especially forest dwellers depend On forest during drought and adversary climate conditions. Attempts are being made to undertake processing of MFP by tribals to provide good value. Trihals are also involved in collection, processing of medicinal plants.
The dams erected for irrigation and hydroelectric projects submerge large extent of forest land displacing the inhabitants of that region. lt also causes enormous loss Lu flora and fauna of that region. Sardar Sarovar project aclaimed 26,466 acres of forest land, 27850 acres of irrigated land and 31775 acres of other lands.
Management of Forests: Following measures should be taken:
(i) Monitoring of the forest growth and depletion rate.
(ii) Prevention of forest fires.
(iii) A use of scientific methods for harvesting forest products.
(iv) Total stopping of unauthorised cutting of trees.
(v) Strict enforcement of forest laws.
(vi) Adopting tree plantation and maintenance.
(vii) Adopting social forestry for fuel wood fodder, timber, fruit and so on.
Minor Forest Product (MFP)
Products of high value
- Essential oils
Products f Low Value
- Oil seeds
- Soap nut
- Hill broom
- Mahua leaves
- Tendu leaves
- Marking nut
Products of Medicinal Value
- Safid musali
Q. 3. What is water pollution? What are its causes and effects on human health?
Ans. Concept of water pollution has already been discussed.
Causes : Major söurces are the following :
1. Sewage and Other Wastes : Sewage is waterborne waste derived from home, animal and food processing plants. It includes human excreta, paper, cloth, soap, detergents, etc. rrhese constitute a major proportion Of water pollutants. There is uncontrolled dumping of wastes of rural areas, towns and cities into ponds, lakes, stream or rivers. Due to accumulation of sewage
and other wastes in these bodies, they are not able to recycle them angl their self-regulatory
capability is lost. The decomposition of these wastes by aerobic microbes decreases due to higher levels of pollution. The self-purifying ability of water is lost and water ‘becomes unfit for drinking and other domestic uses. Since; decomposition of sewage and other wastes is largely an aerobic process, accumul these in water increases its oxygen requirements (BOD).
Phosphates are major ingredient of most detergents. They favour luxuriant growth of algae which form watei k)looms. This extensiveealgae growth also consumes most of available oxygen from water. This decrease in 02 level becomes deterimental to growth of other organisms which produces a foul smell upon decay. Some decomposing plants are- known to produce toxins as strychnine which kills animals including cattle.
2. Industrial Effluents : A wide variety of inorganic pollutants remains present in effluents from breweries, tanneries, textiles, paper and pulp mills, steel industries, mining operations, etc. These include oils, greases.
3. Agricultural Discharges : Modern agriculture rely heavily on synthetic chemicals which include different types of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides or weedicides. These chemicals along with waste are washed off lands through irrigation, rainfall, damage, etc. reaching into the rivers, lakes, streams, etc. where they disturb the natural ecosystem.
Fertilizers (phosphates, nitrates, etc.) along with domestic waste (sewage) make water bodies nutrients rich. These become more productive, a phenomenon called eutrophication. Due to this, oxygen level of water decreases and CO level increases. It causes death offish and other animals, due to which clean water body turns into a stinking drain.
Pesticides ai•e the chemicals used for killing the plant and animal pests. It is a general term
that includes bactericides. fungicides, nematicides, insecticides and also the herbicides or weedicides. Since weeds (herbs) are not pests like bacteria, fungi nematodes, insects, the
spectrum of activity of these chemicals is extended beyond the pests; some authors use a broader term-biocide to include also herbicides, etc.
4. Industrial Wastes : Fluoride Pollution: Fluorine is regularly present in water and soil besides air. In nature it is found as fluoride. The crop plants grown in high-fluoride soils in agricultural, non-industrial areas had a fluoride content as high as 300 ppm. Consumption of fluoride-rich water from wells caused endemic fluorisis. Fluoride content water caused dental fluorisis. Prolonged intake of fluoride containing water stiffens the bone joints, particularly of spinal cord.Fluoride is not absorbed in the blood stream. It has an affinity with calcium and thus gets accumulated in bones, resulting in the mottling of teeth, pain in the bones and joint and Oiltward bending of legs from the knees-knock-knee syndrome. Fluoride levels more than 0.5 Ppm over a period of 5-10 years results in flurisis termination in crippling or paralysis. In water of most villages of Rajasthan, fluoride level is higher than permissible limit of 1 mg/litre of water.
Cattle grazing around, fluoride sources, as ceramic rocks, phosphate fertilizer plants and alliminium factories often develop fluorisis. The toxic effects are staining, mottling and abrasion of teeth, high fluoride levels in boneaand urine, decreased milk production and lameness. Effects : As we know water is a vital resource essential for sustaining life, so, its contamination has immediately as well as far reaching effects on health and environment of living beings. Adverse effects of water pollution can be studied under following heads : 1. Physical 2. Oxidation Effects.
1. Physical Effects: These will be due to suspended particle solids, cooling water from power stations and oily surface of films. solids may be inert material wastes or insoluble finely divided organic soils. Inert material in water may slowly accumulate on vegetation foliage and a deposit on river bed. These may also cause reduction in solar energy absorption thereby decreasing rate of photosynthesis causing low ‘oxygen conditions on river bed. Suspended materials may cause turbidity which reduces light penetration, reduces plant synthesis and restricts plant growth. Turbidity also reduces food gathering capacity and respiratory efficiency of animals. Finely divided organic solids will be biodegTaded and will se a disturbance cause reduction of dissolved oxygen in water.
Cooling water from power stations can cause a rise in water e and bring about of balanced ecosystem. thermal pollution. Variations in temperature will affect metabolic rate ofphysiological processes. Increased temperature will cause decrease in fresh after fauna population and increase in flora population. At higher temperature, blue-green algae and sewage fungus will grow more which result in plant death. Oxygen conc./saturation percentage will be reduced and biodegradation will be increased. Both these factors will cause oxygen deficiency m water. Waste oil, fats and grease can enter water from several sources. These will form a thin film on water surface which prevents exchange of oxygen with atmosphere causing reduction of watersaturation, spillage from oil tankers in sea will cause marine population on shore contamination.
Oil slicks are responsible for death of many birds. Oil reduces thermal insulation and resistance
to cold, irritates digestive system and produces toxic effects. A badly oiled shore can be largely
denuded of animal life and sea weeds are also affected.
2. Toxic Chemical Effects : Some organic and inorganic chemical substances are toxic to plants, animals and humans. These toxic substances are absorbed into tissues from polluted water. They can cause injury leading to death of living organisms. Effects will depend upon cone, period of action and metabolism of organism.
In brief, water pollution can lead to spread to epidemics like cholera, jaundice, etc. can cause
nervous disorder due to presence of metals like mercury, lead, copper, etc. discharged from
industrial effluents, can affect biological process and animals if they consume water contaminated by release of dyes, etc., and, last but not least, increased water treatment costs.
3. Oxidation Effects : It is of two types : 1. By action of bacteria over organic pollutant.
2. Chemical oxidation of other pollutants.
Both types involve use of dissolved 02. It will cause increase in BOD resulting in deficiency of 02 in water. In bacteriological oxidation, sulphides are converted into stilphates, ammonia to nitrite and then to nitrate.
In chemical oxidation, ferrous salts are converted into ferric salts which are deposited as rusty red gelatinous masses associated with filamentous bacteria. which are toxic to biological life.
Q. 4. Name and discuss two major world food problems.
Ans. Food Problems: The two major food problems in the world are as follows :
The problem of under-nourishment arises due to lack of sufficient calories in food, while mal-nourishment is caused due to lack of specific ingredients (such as vitamins, proteins etc.) in the food even though the quantity of food is sufficient.
- Under-nourishment : A healthy human body requires an average minimum diet of 2500 calories per day. This comes from different kinds of foods. These includese grains, vegetables, fruits, eggs, fishes etc. Healthy food is combination of various energetic substances such as fats, carbohydrates, proteins etc. If the intake of calories from staple diet is less than required, i.e., 2500 calories, the food is said to be under-nourished. Effects of under-nourishment
food on human beings are as follows :
(a) An adult may look like an old man.
(b) Less energy in body for doing any kind of work.
(c) Body becomes susceptible to diseases due to lack of energy and poor nutrients.
(d) Body becomes weak and human being may fall sick.
Effects of under-nourishment on children are more detrimental which are as follows •
(a) Mentally retarded.
(b) Abnormalities like deafness.
(c) Illness such as anaemia, goitre etc.
(d) Slow body growth
(e) Delayed adulthood.
2. Mal-nourishment : It means lack of healthxinérådients in diet.i if the food being eaten, has nutritional imbalance due to lack of appropriate dietary ingrediends, the is said to be mal-nourished. Mal-nourishment may lead to following problems :
- Goitre: It is caused due to lack of iodine in the,diet.
- Anaemia: It is caused due to lack of iron in the diet.
- Hypothyroidism: It is caused due to lack of iodine in diet.
Q.5. What do you understand by the term mineral efficiency?
Ans. Mineral Efficiency: Mineral efficiency is one of the most important aspect of mining for reducing environmental impact. It is the responsibility of the society to reduce the consumption of metals, to make fullest use of the, every recyclable properties of metals and to reduce the massive inputs of energy and water neceSsary to process minerals. Mineral efficiency can be achieved by following measures :
- By increasing greater efficiencies in the mineral production.
- By reducing non-essential mineral use, i.e., to use more benign materials in place of minerals. For example, substitution of fibre optics for copper wiring, reducing the use of gold in etc.
- By making the best possible use of the metals and other mineral currently in circulation.
This can be done by recycling the metals for number of times.
Q. 6. Discuss water resource problems.
Ans. Water Resources Problems : Water occurs naturally in gaseous, solid and liquid phases main use of it is nearly all concerned with the last state and also dominated by him demand for water relatively low in dissolved salts, i.e., freshwater. Freshwater is a precious, resource and is obtained from the following three natural sources .
1. Rain water: India receives about 3 trillion m 3 of water from rainfall, which amounts to about 105 to 117 cm annually. This is a huge resource and largest in the world. ‘But almost 90% of this precipitation falls between mid-June and October. Of the total annual precipitation, India utilizes only 10% which may increase about 26% by 2025 A.D. There is a need of good management of rainwater resource.
2. Surface flow: In India surface flow takes place through 14 major river systems namely Brahmani, Brahmaputra, Kaveri, Ganga, God vari, Indus, Krishna, Mahanadi, Mahi, Narmada, Perrier, Sabarmati, Subarnarekha and Ta i. Bbtwecn them they share 83% of drainager basin, account for 8% of surface flow. Apart from them, there are 44 medium and 55 minor river systems-these are fast flowing, monsoon fed and originate in the coastal hills. Of the major rivers, Brahmputra, Ganga and Indus basin alongwith Godavari cover more than 50% of the country. Only 4 rivers namely Brahmputra, Ganga, Mahanadi and Brahmani are perennial rivers with a minimum discharge of 0.47 M m 3 km2/year.
3. Ground water: Underground reservoirs of fresh water are called aquifers. They are continuously recharged through infiltration, seepage and evapo-transpiration. The total volume of ground water found in the aquifers IS estimated to be 42.3 x 1010m . At present about 25% of the ground water is being used by man. Agriculture sector uses the maximum amount of water in the world. This amount is about 73% and leads to a lot of pressure on ground water. Excessive use of ground water i depletes aquifers, lowers the water table and may lead to salinization, waterlogging and alkalinization of the soils. As the human population goes on increasing, so do agriculture and industrial activities. As a result, there is a considerable demand for water resources.
Q. 7. Enumerate different strategies of water resource development.
Ans. Water Resource Development : Water resource in India may be developed by adopting the following means :
1. Inter-river grid network
2. Desalination systems
3. Command areas plan
4. Construction of reservoirs
5. Artificial recharge
6. Snow melting techniques
1. Inter-river grid network : It makes use of interlinking of rivers in different zones such as Himalayan rivers to peninsular rivers.
2. Construction of reservoir : Major, medium or mini reservoir preserves excess water during rainy season. Bhakhara dam is a major.reservoir to quote.
3. Desalination systems : These are used to convert sea water useable for other purpose by methods such as :
(i) Solvent extraction
(iv) Reverse osmosis etc.
(iii) Multi-stage evaporation
4. Artificial recharge : This is a method of impounding excess rain water underground in the form of aquifers.
5. Command areas plan : The plan utilizes irrigation potential; improves yield per unit Water and generates multi-disciplinary developments such as land reforms, soil survey, cropping pattern etc.
6. Snow melting techniques: These involve heating of snow by use of chemical such as sodium chloride etc. Q.
Q.8. Name and explain in brief, various ways in which energy from oceans can be obtained.
Ans. Energy available due to difference In temperature of water at surf’ace of tropical oceans and at deeper levels- is called ocean thermal energy. A difference of’ or more ‘is required between surface water and deeper water of ocean ‘for OTEC power plants. The warm surface water of ocean is used to boil a liquid like ammonia. High pressure vapours of liquid formed by boiling are then used to turn turbine of a generator and produce electricity. Colder water from deeper ocean is pumped to cool and condense vapours into liquid. Thus, this process keeps on going continuously for 24 hours a day.
Various methods of extracting energy from oceans
1. Ocean thermal energy conversion : In oceans a thermal gradient of 200C exist between surface water heated by sun and the, colder deep water. this temperature difference can be harnessed to produce power. A working fluid like ammonia or propane Is pumped into tube exposed to warm water. Vaporized ammonia due to warm water drive turbo-generator and is condensed by cold water 100 m below surface and returns back to start cycle again. Hence energy is derived.
2. Tidal power: A lot of energy is inherent in rise and fall of tides and ocean waves. Ono of simple scheme is to construct a dam across mouth of a bay and mount turbines in structure. The incoming tide flowing through turbines generates power. As tides shift blades may he reversed so that out flowing water continues to generate power.
Q. 9. Write short note on water logging.
Ans. Water Logging: Water logging means accumulation of water. Unless done deliberately, it is ‘a problematic happening. Water logging is mainly caused due to following reasons :
1. High water table i.e., rising of underground water level nearer to the ground surface.
2. Flooding on the ground surface due to excessive rainfall and choked, restricted or blocked water outlet.
3. Continued flooding of irrigational canals resulting in seepage and rise of water table.
The effects of water logging are harmful to the environment in following respects .
1. Plants on such areas are deprived of adequate availability of oxygen for respiration.
2. The yield in crops is hampered due to water imbalance.
3. Quality (i.e., fertility) of water logged soil deteriorates, resulting in its poor productivity.
4. Equilibrium of soil gets disturbed due to seepage of water, from excessively used irrigational canals.
Generally the water logging is a local or regional problem, but some areas are very frequently water logged. In India, these areas are
1. Estuarine deltas of Ganges (junction of a river falling into the ocean).
2. Andaman and Nicobar islands.
3. Some areas of Kerala.
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