Network Technology in Ethical Hacking with Examples

Network Technology in Ethical Hacking with Examples

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Network Technology in Ethical Hacking with Examples

Ethical Hacking and Cyber Laws are two interconnected fields that play a crucial role in the modern digital landscape. Ethical hacking, also known as penetration testing or white-hat hacking, involves authorized and legal attempts to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses in computer systems and networks. It aims to safeguard digital assets by employing the same techniques and tools used by malicious hackers, but with the consent and knowledge of the system owner.

Introduction to Networks

Network: Interconnetion of two or more devices with each other for a common purpose i.e sharing which can be peripheral devices or can either be any information.
  • Intranet
  • Internet

How you get connected to the network ??

Network Topologies (Arrangement)
  • o Bus Topology  : single transmission channel
  • o Star Topology : one central node
  • o Ring Topology : Forming a ring sturcture with no central                   dependency
  • o Mesh Topology : Every node is connected to every other node present in a network
  • o Hybrid Topology : Mixture of the above topologies.
Network Protocols (Network me kadam rakhne ke liye kch rules follow krne hote ha unko network protocol kehte hai)
o IP : The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet.
o HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol ) : Protocol defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, it is the foundation of any data exchange in WWW (80).
o FTP: To transfer files over the network.
           (In intranet accessed ftp://ip ) [21]
o SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer protocol):  To transfer mail properly 25,366
o VoIP : Voice over Internet Protocol is a category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls by sending voice data in packets using IP (5060 and 5061)
o DHCP : Automatic assignment of IP
(dynamic host configuration protocol)
o TCP : handshaking , connection-oriented, reliable, slow
Transmission control Protocol: examples:
o UDP  (USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL): no hanshake, connection less, not reliable, fast, video streamng
There are two types of address :
Virtual address : your IP address which might change fromm place to place
physical address : Which will remain constant throughout like your MAC address.
o Types of IP
▪ Internal | Private | Local
–> ipconfig
–> ifconfig
▪ External | Public | Global
–> myipaddress


IPv4 uses a 32-bit address scheme allowing for a total of 2^32 addresses (just over 4 billion addresses)
IPv6 addresses are 128-bit IP address written in hexadecimal and separated by colons. (jio users)
00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000 = 32 bit
             2^2   2^1    2^0
0          0 0 0 000
1   0     0       1 001
2  0     1       0010
3             0     1       1 011
4   1     0       0 100
5             1     0       1           101
6             1     1       0           110
7             1     1       1           111
192 = 11000000
168 = 10101000
                  128     64       32     16    8     4      2      1
          192=     1       1       0      0     0     0     0     0
          168=     1       0       1      0     1     0     0     0
IP Classes in decimal notation
Class A addresses range from 1-126 —
Class B addresses range from 128-191
Class C addresses range from 192-223
Class D addresses range from 224-239
Class E addresses range from 240-254–> loopback address
00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000 — 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111
Class A:  (2^N-2) HOSTS
         — —–
         HI    NI
Class B:
Class C: – —-> ip for CS – —-> ip for EC

NAT – Network Address Translation

This is a function which converts my Public IP Address to my Private IP Address and vice versa.


A port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system. In the computer networking system a computer or a program connects and run the services on the Internet via a port. They are the gateways through which we access any service of any system.
THere are 2 TYpes of Ports Basically-
1. Hardware or Physical Ports – The ports which helps to connect the hardware components to our computer.These are the ports which are tangible and we can see and use the into a particular system. For eg. USB Port, HDMI, VGA Port.
2. Virtual or Logical Ports –  These are those ports which are not tangible and used to run a service in a Computer Networking System. For every service or protocol there is a unique port number assigned to it which helps in processing it. SO these are the ports which are virtually located in a system or a machine to access some services of the system but is not visible and virtually located.
There are a total of 65,535 POrts in a particular system.

Categories of Virtual and Logical Ports

1. Well KNown and Pre-defined Ports – THese are those which are used for all the well knowned Services like which are used all over the globe.
Eg. – HTTP – Hyper Text TRansfer Protocol – 80
  HTTPS – HTTP SEcure Socket Layer – 443
  SMTP – Simple Mail TRansfer Protocol – 25
  FTP – File TRansfer Protocol – 21
2. Registered Ports – THese ports are those which are basically used by software organizations to run there services.
For eg . Mysql – 3306
Team Viewer – 1609
3. Dynamic or Standalone Ports – THese ports are those which are used by anyone for there personal purposes.
For eg . 48,897

Range Of Ports

WEll KNown Ports – 0-1023
Registered Ports – 1024 – 41,951
Dynamic Ports – 41,952-65,535


Language – Binaries – 0&1
Domain Name System is a Technology which converts a Domain Name into IP Address or a Number and Vice Versa.
Because it is difficult to learn a IP Address for a website for a layman. for eg. learning “” for “” .
“Ping” – “ping”


Proxy are the Dummy Servers which helps us by allocating an IP Address of themselves to us which is for temporary basis.
It acts as a middle man between DNS server and client accessing it.
THey alocate a IP Address of any location, and give us the permission to access the web service which is blocked.
To find out the loaction of a Global IP – “”
Proxies are of 3 Types
1. Web Based Proxy or Proxy Servers – These are the Websites which are acting as a Proxy Server and allows to act as a intermediater between client and server.
For eg. –
  ninja proxy etc.
2. Web Extension Based Proxy – THese are the Proxy Servers Client Agents which are enabled in our browser and helps to as behaving like a proxy dummy server.
For eg. Anonymox, Hola Proxy Extension etc.


Virtual Private Network is more advanced technology which allows authorized clients to access the Virtually Created Network which will be safe and set the anonymity of a person. They are most advanced then proxies and basically a new virtual network created by organizations or anyone for there personal usage.
THey are only can be accessed by authorized people only usually in corporates for accessing there confidential resources..
More Functionalities that Proxies:
= Tunneling of data – So that there can be a secret passage which will not be known to anyone.
= Encryption of Data- It encrypts or make the data in the unreadable format. Sairam “Hello Sanjeev -> 13453267gsds”
= It gives you better functionalities of networking.
= Authorization and Authentication – Only authorized people can access it.
Eg. PROXPN, VPNBOOK.COM , free of cost
Standardisation Followed for commiunication into a Particular Network
1. Physical Layer – Wired / Wireless, Bitwise conversion of data
2. Data Link Layer- MAC Addressing
3. Networking Layer – LOgical Addressing and IP Fragmentation
4. Transport Layer – Define the Port Addressing and Routing Architecture
5. Session Layer – Existance of a particular Session created by the Application.
6. Presentation Layer – Bit Conversion and Fragmentation of data packets
7. Application Layer – UI of any application -Whatsapp etc.
Not Feasable


1. Physical Layer / Network INterface = Physical + Data Link Layer
2. Network Layer / INternet Layer
3. TRansport Layer
4. Application Layer = Session + Presentation + Application Layer


1. Web Hosting Space – ICANN – GoDaddy, Bigrock etc.
2. Domain Name – .com/.in/.net
3. Database – Where all the data get stored in a server
4. Server Type – Windows based servers, Linux Servers
5. Clients and Server Architecture
6. WEb Technologies – HTML , PHP , JSP , ASP etc.
1. How does Search Engine Works? Spiders? Crawlers?
3. Create a Table of 10 Well Keown Ports and Registered Ports.
4. Comprision between OSI and TCP/IP Model.

Network Technology in Ethical Hacking

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