Business Communication Important Question Answer
Business Communication Important Question Answer :–
Long Questions Answer
Q. 1. Define oral communication. Discuss the advantages and limitations of oral communication.
Ans. Oral Communication : It is one of the earliest as well as the most widely practised medium of communication. Oral communication is the form of communication in which message is transmitted in spoken words. In oral communication, the process is a face-to-face conversation and mechanical devices can also be used like telephone, internet etc. It may take place in different ways such as personal talks, talephonic conversation, seminars, interviews, speeches etc, Oral communication saves time and provideimmediate feedback, In a face-to-face conversation, doubts, clarifications, explanations and questions can be asked and answered at once. In this process of communication, the receiver also come to know the body language of the sender.
According to Viley, “ln the process of communication, verbal communication is best one, because along with words, body language is also used in this form of communication with the result that receiver can easily know the feelings of sender.”
Oral communication is a speedy, economic, flexible, clear and effective method of communication. But oral communication is not recommended in which formal record is required and when communication is lengthy and distant.
Advantages of oral communication are as follows :
1. Speedy and Simple Method : Oral communication is very fast, simple and economical method of communication. It saves the time involved in writing the message and also saves the money spent on stationary in an organization.
2. Flexibility : Oral communication is characterised with high level of flexibility. The speaker can adjust his message and tone according to the situation, He is also free to modify or withdraw his comments.
3. Personal Touch : Oral communication proves helpful in making healthy climate in the organisation by bringing superiors and subordinates closer. Both the sides can understand each other fully and clearly. It helps in developing mutual faith and understanding.
4. Immediate Response : The main advantage of oral communication is that it provides immediate response to both the sender and the receiver. Each can ask questions for clarification and doubts can be removed at once. The speaker can easily understand the reaction of the audience.
5. More Effective : Oral communication is more effective in its nature as body language is used Along with the words, It can be made even more effective at different times by the feelings Of happiness, anger, respect etc.
6. Secrecy : It is easier to keep oral messages secret because no record of communication is generally maintatined.
7. Useful for Group Discussion : Oral communication proves helpful for communicating the groups. Therefore, this type of communication is widely used in meetings, seminars and conferences where different people can interact with each other.
8. Participative Management : Oral communication promotes participative management system. AII persons concerned with an issue are invited to discuss it and taking appropriate decisions.
Disadvantages of oral communication are as follows :
1. Presence of Both Parties : Oral communication becomes possible only when both the parties are present. If receiver is not present sensity of oral communication is lost.
2. poor Retention Power : The listner cannot retain oral messages in his memory for a long time. The speaker himself may not recall what he actually said.
3. unsuitable for Lengthy Messages : When message is lengthy, then oral communication is not suitable because the chances of its misunderstanding and forgetting are very high. Lengthy message fail to retain listeners attention so the oral communicatin fails.
4. No Record for Future : Oral communication provide no record for future reference. In the absence of record, oral message have no legal validity.
5. Less Effective : Usually people take less care while speaking in comparison to writing. Therefore, spoken word tends to be less effective than the written words.
6. Lack of Responsibility : Since oral messages have no documentary proof, it becomes difficult to hold person responsible for mistakes, inaccuracy„ untruth in oral communication.
7. Possibilities of Misunderstanding : Due to noise and poor expression, oral communication is likely to be misunderstood. The speaker may not be able to make himself quite clear or the listener may be inattentive.
Q. 2. Media and types of communication (oral and written (non-verbal) communication).
Or Discuss various forms of verbal communication.
Ans. Several methods or means are used in communication. The different media used in communication may be classified as given below :
Verbal Communication : Verbal communication by using language is called verbal communication. It can be divided into three parts : 1. Oral communication.2. Written communication.3. E-mail communication.
1. Oral Communication : Oral communication exchange message with the help of spoken word. In oral communication the two parties communicate, the sender and receiver.
Exchange their idea by speech either into face-to-face communication between individual or group of individual or any mechanical or any electrical such as mobile, telephone, address system etc.
Advantages of oral communication are as follows :
(a) Oral communication help in getting quick response from the receiver.
(b) Oral communication is time saving.
(c) oral communication is very economical.
(d) Oral communication is personal in nature.
(e) Oral communication is faster as compared to written communication.
(f) Oral communication also provide the speaker to correct himself.
Disadvantages of oral communication are as follows :
(a) There are no documentary proof of oral communication.
(b) Where the message is to be conveyed is too lengthy, oral communication is not suitable.
(c) There is every possibility that spoken words are not clearly understood or many be taken in some other senses.
2. Written (non-verbal) Communication : Written communication is written words in the forms of letter, memo, report etc., when oral communication cannot meet each and every Person concurrent, either due to a large number of communication.
Advantages of written communication are as follows :
(a) It makes up the image of the company.
(b) It can be check for accuracy,
(c) It is permanent.
(d) Responsibility can be easily assigned.
(e) A single message can be sensed through mailing to many people.
Disadvantages of written communication are as follows s.
(a) It is time consuming.
(b) Everything cannot be put into writing.
(c) Written communication is very dynamic and flexible.
(d) Written communication cannot be confidential because it passes through to many hand.
Q. 3. What do you understand by oral presentation? Discuss the factors affecting the oral presentation.
Write a note on oral presentation.
Ans. Oral Presentation : Oral presentation refers to a speech presented before a group of audience to tell about a product, idea or service etc. In the oral presentation, a person expresses his view in his own words on the predetermined topic.
Sales executive have to make number of oral presentation on different occasions like training employee, introducing new product or to accept the new idea. It is an effective way of oral communication.
Factors Affecting the Oral Presentation
Main factors which affect the effectiveness of the presentation can be summerised as follows :
1. Language and Words : To make the presentation effective, speaker should choose the catching words that appeal to the heart and emotion of audience. Suitable example, word pictures make the presentation effective and interesting.
2. Audience Analysis : If the speaker has analysed the audience in proper way before presentation, his presentation will be more effective. The more you know about your audience, the more effective presentation you can make. The style of the presentation is largely dependent upon the type and size of the audience.
3. Quality of Voice : The speakers voice put a deep impression on the presentation. When a speaker adjust his voice according to the size of audience and environmental factor he can express his view effectively. Control on the speed of voice changes in speed according to the need of subject matter; stress on specific points, adjustment in the pitch etc. Enhance, the effectiveness of presentation. If these are not well coordinated, the presentation becomes ineffective.
4. communication Environment : Proper arrangement of physical things surrounding the speaker. Such as the stage, lighting arrangement, background etc. also enhance the impact of the presentation.
5. Body Language : The effectiveness of presentation is also affected by the body language of the speaker. According to experts, words affect only 10% of message, tone is responsible for 40% and 500/6 is affected by body language. Various forms of body language affect the presentation in the following ways :
(a) Postures : Way of sitting, standing and lying down also make a great impact on the presentation. Change in posture in accordance with subject matter makes the presentation effective. If a speaker stands in a same posture during presentation, then it make the presentation ineffective.
(b) Movement : Taking a few steps; depending upon the need of presentation enhance effectiveness of presentation. However too much walking carries negative impression.
(c) Facial Expression : Facial expression and eye contact also affect the presentation. Facial expression should be according to the subject matter and circumstances. A speaker who looked more at the audience is judged as better informed. More experienced, more honest and friendliest than speaker who delivers the speech with less eye contact. With eye contact, audience feel that speaker in talking to them.
(d) Gestures : The oral presentation should be make effective with the graceful movement of head, shoulder, arms or hands.
6. Answering Questions : The effectiveness of presentation is also affected by speaker’s skill in handling questions asked at the end of presentation. A speaker who answers the audience questionswith tact is likely to influence the audience move.
Q. 4. What is effective listening? Give the importance and guidelines for effective listening.
Ans. Effective Listening: Listening is an important aid to communication through its importance had not been realised till very recently. In an American company when a survey was conducted on how members spent their time communicating, they were surprised to discover that 63 percent of their time was taken up listening to one another while reading took 4 per cent, writing 11 per cent and speaking 22 per cent. It is undoubtable that if people are bad listeners, they will also make bad communicators.
Advantages of effective listening are as follows :
We usually listen (i) to obtain information, (ii) to solve problems, (iii) to share experiences and (iv) to persuade or dissuade,
It is easy to imagine that if people were bad listeners, (i) only inaccurrate and incomplete information would be exchanged, (ii) problems would not be clearly understood and would remain Unsolved, (iii) they would not be able to share one another’s experience and (iv) on account of being unable to understand each other through their own or others inattentiveness they would not be able to Persuade or dissuade others. In addition, the following aclvantages of listening can be easily listed :
1. Listening Helps to Know the Organization : Listening, especially careful listening to the grapevine will enable you to know what the members of the staff think of the company’s policies and activities. Hence it will help you to understand your organization better,
2. Listening Helps to Make Better Policies : If you listen to your subordinates carefully you will know which policies are suitable for your organization. You will not keep stumbling from one top heavy policy to another. You will chalk out the policies which are acceptable to other members and which will win their willing supports.
3. Listening Mollifies the Complaining Employees : Very often employees have Certain grievances which exist more in their mind than in reality, i.e. which are primarily psychological. If you listen to them patiently and sympathetically, their anger will subside and they will leave mollified.
4. Listening is Important for the Success of the Open Door Policy : Many managers take pride in the fact that they believe in the open door policy, i.e. they always keep their door open for the employees to walk into their room and talk to them. No doubt, their door is always open, but they are themselves bad listeners. So their employees are inhibited to talk freely, The result is a total failure of upward communication. But if you as a manager, listen sympathetically, your employees will be encouraged to talk and there will be free upward communication.
5. Listening Helps to Spot Sensitive Areas : Before they become explosive, In an engineering firm, the management decided to meet the workers union regularly whether or not there were an problems to sort out. The result was that they began to listen to each other well for the first time. They were able to spot sensitive areas and find out solutions before they became explosive and many other problems which could have led to serious disputes just did not arise.
Guidelines to Effective Listening : Guidelines to effective listening are as follows :
1. Listen patiently to what the other person has to say even though you may believe it to be
wrong or irrelevant. Indicate simple acceptance (not necessarily agreement) nodding your head or perhaps interjecting an occasional “um-hm”, or “I see”.
2. Try to understand the feelings the person is expressing as well as the intellectual content. Most of us have difficulty in talking clearly about our feelings. So careful attention is required.
3. Restate the person’s feelings, briefly but accurately. At this stage you simply serve as a mirror and encourage the other person to continue talking. Occasionally, make summary responses such as you think you are in a dead-end job, but in doing so keep your tone neutral and try not to lead the person to your pet conclusions.
4. Allow time for the discussions to continue without interruption and try to separate the conversation from more official communication of company plans. That is, do not make the conversation any more “authoritative” than if already is by virtue of your position in the organisation.
5. Avoid direct questions and arguments about facts, refrain from saying, “That is just not so” “Hold on for a minute, let’s look at the facts”, or “Prove it” You may want to review the evidence later, but a review is irrelevant to how the person feels now.
6. When the other person does touch upon a point you do want to know more about simply repeat statements as a question. For instance, if he remarks, ‘Nobody can break even on his expense account’, “You can probe by replying,” “You say no one breaks even on expenses”? With this encouragement he will probably expand on his previous statement.
7. Listen for what is not said evasions for pertinent points or perhaps too ready agreement with common cliches. Such an commission may be a clue to a bothersome fact the person wishes were not true.
8. If the other person appears genuinely to want your view point, be honest in your reply. But at the listening stage try to limit the expression of your views, since these may condition or repress what the other person says.
9. Don’t get emotionally involved yourself, Try simply to understand first and differ evaluation until later.
10. Listen “between the lines”. A person does not always put everything that is important into words. The changing tones and volume of his voice may have a meaning. So may his facial expression, the gestures he makes with his hands and the movements of his body.
11. Better results can be achieved if the superior gives less emphasis to explaining and more emphasis to listening.
Q. 5. Write a detailed note on sign language.
Ans. Human beings communicate in many ways other than through words. Words often fail to
convey the exact meaning. Therefore, pictures, drawings, sounds are often used to convey messages, The practice of drum beating in jungles has been used for communication from the very beginning of history. All these means (other than words) used in communication a Fe known as non-verbal communication.
Sign Language : Sign language involves use of audio and visual signals.
1. Audio (sound) Signals : Drum beating is used to make important announcement and to tell people to assemble at a specified place. Several types of alarm signals are used to caution people, Fire alarm, accident alarm, air raid or assault alarms, VIP motorcade alarm, machine breakdown alarm are example. A clock alarm is used to make us aware of our time.
Buzzers, push button bells, electric bells and other sound signalling system are used in office, Sirens, hooters and whistlers of various types are other examples of audio signals.
The main advantages of sound signals are given below :
(a) Sound signals convey the message very quickly. For example, the hooting of a siren in a factory immediately makes the workers active.
(b) Sound signals are very useful for managing time.
(c) The working of an organization can be streamlined with the help of buzzers and such other sound signals.
2. Visual Signals : Visual signals such as posters, drawings, cartoons, photographs, caricatures, statues, etc. are used to convey messages for general information and education. Books on geography, science, history, economics etc. always contain maps and diagrams. Colour photographs are used by hotels, tour and travel agencies, motor companies, etc. all over the world. Similarly traffic lights and lights at railway stations and airports convey relevant information to people. Lights on top of ambulance, VIP vehicles and neon signs are useful means of communication. Lights are also used to mark festivals celebration etc. Flags, flowers and bouquets convey relevant message.
Visual signals offer the following advantages :
(a) Visual signals like pictures and posters convey the message very easily and economically.
(b) Colour full photographs and paintings make communication interesting and motivating.
(c) Picture posters etc, reflect the mental makeup and cultural background of the communicator.
(d) Posters and paintings are useful for informing and educating illiterate people
(e) Posters are an effective means of advertising.
Limitations of sign language are as follows :
(a) A great amount of skill and effort is required to draw effective pictures, posters and cartoons.
(b) Only simple and elementary ideas can be communicated through sign language.
(c) Sign language cannot be substitude for but only a supplement to verbal communication.
(d) People may misunderstand sign language.
(e) On the spot correction is not possible in sign language.
Q. 6. What do you understand by para language? Explain in brief.
Ans. Para Language : The word ‘para’ means ‘like’ and therefore, para language is ‘like language’
It is non-verbal because it does not involve use of words. But it is like verbal communication because it is related to the way words are spoken.
1. Voice : Voice is the important element of para language. The voice used by a speaker reveals his education, training temperament and general background. Voice can be clear or unclear, Pleasant or unpleasant, cultivated or musical and so on. More clear the voice, the more effective the communication. The following aspects of voice are important in communication :
(a) Speaking Speeds : A speaker may speak at different speed on different occasions or during different parts of his speech. It is not desirable to speak fast and slow at all times. Speed should be such as to ensure fluency. Generally, easy parts of a message should be sooken fast because these can be easily understood on the other hand difficult or complicated parts should be presented at a slow speed.
(b) Pitch Variation : Speaking at length on the same level of pitch makes the speech monotonous or boring. Therefore, wide variations in pitch are made during a speech, These variations in pitch are helpful in catching the attention of the listener and in maintaining his interest in speech. Generally high level officers speak in a high pitched voice, while lower level employees speak in low pitched voice. Similarly, an angry or excited person speaks in a high-pitched voice. In order to improve one’s pitch variation one should observe others speaking and learn from their suggestions.
(c) Volume Variation : It means loudness of the speech. Volume variation puts life into our speaking. The loudness of voice should be adjusted according to the size of the audience. The larger the audience the higher the volume. While speaking we should be loud enough to be audible but not too loud to put the audience off.
(d) Pause : One cannot and should not go on speaking without pausing. But the pauses in a speech should be at right moments. A pause can be very helpful in emphasising the upcoming subject and in gaining the attention of the audience. However too frequent pauses will spoil the speech.
2. Word Stress : Proper word stress is highly important in communication. A speaker can change the meaning by putting stress on a word here or a word there in the same sentence. For example, a different word is stressed in each of the following sentences :
(a) Have you read the new syllabus.
(b) Have you read the NEW syllabus.
(c) Have you READ the new syllabus.
(d) Have you read the new syllabus.
In each sentence the same group of words is used, the stressed on different words gives it a new meaning everything it is spoken.
Similarly we can change the meaning by stressing different parts of spoken words :
(i) Record: (a) Record (Verb).
(b) Record (Noun).
(ii) Convict: (a) Convict (Verb).
(b) Convict (Noun).
A good speaker should not make proper stress on words or parts of words. One good way to improve one’s words stress is to listen to good speakers and participate in discussion. Another way is to listen to English news bulletin on radio and television.
The news readers are selected through a voice test. Therefore, their pronunciation is expected to be widely intelligible and acceptable.
Advantages of para language are as follows :
1. No oral communication is complete without para language.
2. A speaker’s educational background can be judged from his way of speaking.
3. Para language of a person indicates his place on this hierarchical structure of the organization.
4. Knowledge of a person’s para language is helpful in dealing with him.
5. One can improve his para language by listening to good speakers.
Limitations of para language are as follows :
1. Para language is like language but not language.,Therefore, we cannot fully rely on it.
2. Unless the listner is open minded, voice quality, speaking speed, pitch, etc. may prejudice him, causing poor listening.
3. Speakers belong to different speech communities due to which uniformity becomes difficult.
Q. 7. Define the written (non-verbal) communication Discuss the advantages and limitation of written communication.
Ans. Written Communication : When communication is done through the written words, it is termed as written communication. It is one of the best and reliable way of communication. This method is suitable when records are required to be kept in written form.. Written communication involves transmission of messages through letters, notices, circulars, memos, reports etc. The choice Of words should be done carefully in written communication as the words should be such as to convey a specific meaning.
A written communication must contain all the necessary facts. It should be complete and concise but this conciseness should not be at the cost of clarity and completeness.
Advantages of written communication are as follows :
1. Permanent Record : Written communication provides a permanent record for future reference, If any dispute arises, the mattter can be solved by the contents of past written materials.
2. Accuracy : Written messages are prepared with great care and thought as the authenticity of written message can be challenged and verified. Thus it gives clear and correct information to the receiver.
3. Wide Access : Written communication is best suitable in the situations when there is need to send the informations to the persons who are distantly placed. Written message have widest possible coverage.
4. No Need for Personal Contact : In this type of communication, it is not necessary for both Parties to be present before each other. Written message is sent to the concerned person by the authorities.
5. Suitable for Lengthy Messages : Written communication is very suitable for transmitting the lengthy messages.
6. Responsibility and Accountability : In this type of communication, it is quite easy to fix the accountability and responsibility. Nobody can shift or avoid his responsibility.
7. Saves Time and Money : When message is to be conveyed to different people at different places, written communication is the best one, In such cases, it is most economical and time saving.
8. Prevent Distortion of Messages : Written communication reduces the risk of any alteration in the message and thus prevents misunderstanding. It also ensures uniformity in instructions, Procedures and other messages that require identical action by many persons.
Disadvantages of written communication are as follows :
1. Time Consuming : Written communication is more time consuming as time has to be Spent in writing and sending the messages. It is very formal and lacks personal interest
2. Expensive : Written communication is an expensive way of communication as expenditure is incurred on ink, paper, typing, remuneration for the person preparing the message and postage charges etc.
3. Lacks Flexibility : Written communication lacks flexibility as clarification and adjustments cannot be made at once. As there is no direct discussion between the parties, hence doubts of the receiver may not be clarified.
4. Less Effective : Written communication tends to be formal and there is lack of personal touch Sender cannot be able to express his feelings fully in this type of communication. Therefore, the receive is less receptive.
5. Delayed Feedback : In written communication, the sender of the message cannot receive the immediate response of the receiver. He has no opportunity to judge the reaction from the facial expression of the receiver.
6. Lead to Red-tapism : Written communication may lead to red-tapism as it involves formalities.
It is clear from the above discussion that both the methods have their own advantages as well as disadvantages. There is need to make proper co-ordination between these two communication forms. It is rightly said that, if a manager chooses only one method, then he will have to face serious failure,
Q. 8. What is meant by writing skills? Give the various steps of writing skills. Also give the guidelines for effective writing skills.
Ans. Writing Skills : Writing of letters, memos, reports, notices etc. in a clear, simple, concise, courteous and attractive way which attract the attention of the reader and influence people to act or think accordingly is termed as writing skills, writing skill is an important part of written communication, Effective writing is pre-requisite of existence in modern set up and success in any endeavour- writing skill contributes to one’s success in any profession or business. To become successful, one should master the skill and art of expressing oneself clearly and precisely through written message, One’s excellence in writing skill determines the chances of influencing people, winning friends and gaining business,
Writing, like any art spring from the inner most feelings. Clean and audible writing is a bridce between the mind of the writer and the reader. Effective writing enables the reader to understand the message in the same sense and spirit, that the writer wants to convey. As written communication occupies significant position in the organisation, the sender should pay proper attention to the writing skill, Effective business writing requires proper planning, hard work, concentration and practice.
The main four steps of writing skill can be described as follows :
1. Planning : First stages of writing skill, involves planning of the material to be written and facts to be collected. Before writing, the writer should decide in advance about the purpose and scope of written message and the desired response of the person to whom message is addressed. A plan for good writing should involve the following things : (i) purpose of written message (ii) selection Of thoughts (iii) the person to whom it is written (iv) desired response (v) collection of sufficient information and statistics.
First Drafting : In the second stage of message, first draft of message is prepared, Ideas and thoughts are expressed in words and sentences and paragraphs are made. Writing first draft requires organizing and outlining the matter in logical sequence and steps. These outlines act as ‘blueprints’ facilitating construction of the building. In simple words, process of putting words an paper is termed as first drafting.
3. Amendment in the Drafting : After preparing the first draft, it will be read again and necessary amendments should be made. Purpose of communication, object and the words used in should be evaluated again to make it effective. It shoud also be ensured that this written material is written from the reader’s point of view, not from writer’s point of view. Grammar, spelling, punctuation and construction of sentences should be checked properly to make writing effective.
4. Editing : Editing is a very important step in achieving writing skill because mistakes in writing can change the entire meaning of the sentence. It is seen in the editing whether the selection of words is appropriate or not, language of drafting is of high quality, there is no technical mistake or format of drafting is perfect or not etc. Emotional content and tone is also changed accordingly and efforts are made to make the message logical, well-knit and effective.
Guidelines for Effective Writing : For effective writing following points should be kept in mind :
1. Answer of Necessary Questions : For effective writing necessary questions should be answered properly. For example (a) Why to write (b) Whom to write (c) What to write (d) Medium of writing and (e) Where and when to write.
Answer of these questions is necessary for effective writing.
2. Use Familiar Words : For effective writing, simple and familiar words should be used in place of difficult and unfamiliar words. Simple words make the better understanding of the written message.
3. Use Short Words In Place of Long Expressions : Short words are preferable instead of long and trite words. For example in place of ‘enclosed herewith please find’ we will use the word ‘enclosed’ ,and in place of ‘with reference to’ word ‘refer’ should be used to make writing effective.
4. Use Strong Words : For effective writing, strong words should be used as they make an immediate impact on reader’s mind and the message becomes forceful.
strong word weak words
boom period of business prosperity
slump period of decline in business
tycoon very successful businessman.
5. Avoid Technical Words or Jargon : Jargon refers to the special language of a particular trade or profession. This language is easily understood by the members of that professional group but cannot be understood by the outsiders. Therefore, efforts should be made to minimise its use while communicating the persons outside their group.
6. Keep the Paragraph Short : A short paragraph is clear and more effective than a long one.
The average length of a paragraph should generally be eight or nine lines. A paragraph should also contain unity. Unity can be achieved by writing a paragraph around a single topic or idea, The supporting details should also be filled for the topic.
7. Avoid Needless Information : Unnecessary informations should be avoided to make writing effective. The writer should keep in mind the needs of the reader rather than the information at his command.
8. Avoid surplus Words : Very often we use words that add nothing to the meaning of the sentence. For example, “Three conditions should be fulfilled”, is better than “There are three conditions that should be fulfiled.” 9. Writing should be Practical and Logical : It is also to be remembered that writing should be done for practical and logical values as none like to read impractical messages.
10. Make the Paragraph Move Forward : An effective paragraph is; one that moves forward through logically connected sentences. This movement is brought about by our own clarity of thought, logical arrangement of ideas, smoothness in style, careful word choice and sentence structure and use of sentence connectors wherever needed.
11. Emphasise the Right Words : Proper emphasis should be given on the content of a sentence. This requires logical thinking. The writer must be clear in his mind so as to know what he wants to convey and how.