BBA 2nd Sem. Organisation Behaviour Perception Notes
BBA 2nd Sem. Organisation Behaviour Perception Notes :-
The concept of perception is very closely related to the personality of a person. we know that people working in an organisation differ in terms of physical characteristics, background characteristics (such as training and education) and personality traits. one of the consequences of such differences is that people do not view the things in the same way. perception is described as a person’s view of reality. every person computer, human beings also are information processors with one basic difference. while all the computer process a piece of information in the identical manner with identical output, human beings may differ because of their differences and uniqueness. people often see the same phenomenon differently both within the organisational context and outside the organisation. in order to understand why people see the same situation differently one has to understand perception and its different aspects.
Concept (BBA 2nd sem. Notes)
Perception is the cognitive process. In terms of S-O-B-C model perception is the cognitive process which involves the O (organism) selecting, organizing, and interpreting the S (stimulus). Thus, perception is the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting or attaching meaning to the events happening in the environment. This input of meaningful information results in decisions and actions. It is the result of a complex interaction of various senses such as feeling, seeing, hearing, thinking and comparing with known aspects of life in order to make some sense of the world around us. The quality or accuracy of a person’s perception is an important factor in determining the quality of the decisions and action.
“Perception may be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.”
“Perception can be defined as the process of receiving, selection, organizing, interpreting, checking and reacting to sensory stimuli or data”
Sensation and Perception
There is confusion between sensation and perception as both are the cognitive process and both are beads of the same string. But there is a great deal of difference between the two terms. Sensation is immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to the simple stimuli (an advertisement, a package, a brand name). human sensitivity refers to the experience of sensation. Sensitivity to stimuli varies with the quality of an individual’s sensory receptors (e.g., eyesight or hearing) and the amount, of intensity of the stimuli to which it is exposed. For example a blind person may have more highly developed sense of hearing than an average sighted person and may be able to hear sounds that every person can not. Another example of sensation may be reaction of eye to color. Ear to sound and so on.
Perception refers to interpretation of sensory data in other words; sensation involves detecting the presence of a stimulus where as perception involves understanding what the stimulus means. For example when we see something. The visual stimulus is the light energy that is reflected from external world and eye becomes the sensory. The visual images of the external object becomes perception when it is interpreted in the visual context of the brain. Therefore visual perception refers to interpreting the image of external world projected on the retina of the eye and constructing the model of three dimensional worlds. Perception classifies the stimulus which is on the past experience (learning, feelings and motives) therefore perception is determined by both physiological and psychological characteristics of the organism.
Perception is a process of receiving and interpreting environmental stimuli. In a world filled with complex environmental stimuli, our perceptions help us categorize according to our interpretation of the reality we see. In other words, it is screen or filter through which information passes before having an effect on people. The actual transformation of these inputs through the perceptual mechanism of selection, organization, and interpretation can be treated as the throughputs, and the resultant opinions, feelings, attitudes, etc. which ultimately influence our behaviour, can be viewed as the perceptual outputs.
Perception is a selective process as people can sense only limited amount of information in the environment, they are very selective by nature. By selection process certain aspects of stimuli are screened out and others are admitted. Those which are admitted remains in the awareness of people and those which are screened out fall below the threshold. This is known as perceptual selectivity.
External Factors in Perceptual Selectivity
The external factors consist of environmental influences and are in the form of characteristics of perceptual inputs or stimuli. These characteristics may distinguish a particular stimulus from other stimulus of the same group. Such characteristics may be in the form of size, intensity, repetition, novelty and familiarity, contrast and motion. Their impact on the perceptual selectivity is as follows:
- Novelty and Familiarity
Internal factors in Perceptual Selectivity
- Response disposition
- Perceptual defence
MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS OF PERCEPTION
The understanding of human perception, particularly in the organizational setting, is important in understanding and controlling the behaviour, in an organizational setting, perception is important in various activities. However, there are three major areas which require special attention so far as the perceptual accuracy is concerned. These are: interpersonal working relationship, selection of new employees, and performance appraisal.
- Selection of employee
- Interpersonal working relationship
- Performance appraisal
- Delegation of authority
- Organizational change and development
- Project management
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