# Counters in Computer Architecture Tutorial Study Notes with Examples

## Counters

• Sequential circuit that goes through a prescribed sequence of states upon the application of input pulses is called a counter.
• In a counter, the sequence of states may follow a binary count or any other sequence of states.
• Counters are used for counting the number of occurrences of an event and are useful for generating timing sequences to control operations in a digital system.
• A counter that follows the binary sequence is called a binary counter.
• An n-bit binary counter consists of n flip-flop and can count in binary from 0 to  2″-1
• Up counters increases in value and down counters decreases in value.

### Asynchronous Counter (Ripple Counter)

In ripper counter  tree flip-flop output transition serve as a source for triggering e.g., in a binary ripple counter consists of a series  connection of complementing flip-flops (T or JK), with the output of each flip flop to the CP input of next higher order flip-flop.

### Synchronous Counter

Synchronous counter is distinguished from ripple counter such that in synchronous counter clock pulses are applied to the CP inputs of all p-flop simultaneously, rather than one at a time in succession as in ripple counter.

The decision whether flip-flop is to be complemented or not is determined from the value of J and K inputs at the time of the pulse.

## Registers

• A register consists of a group of flip-flops with a common clock input.
• Register are commonly used to store and shift binary data.

### Key Points

An n bits register has a group of 0 flip-flop which can store a binary information of n bits.

### Shift Register

It is a register in which binary data can be stored and then shifted left or right when  a clock pulse is applied , Bits shifted out one end  of the register may be either lost or shifted back in on the other end.

# Sorting in Design and Analysis of Algorithm Study Notes with Example

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