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Types of co-ordination
Co-ordination can be classified into two broad categories, one on the basis of its shape in the organisation and other on the basis of its scope and coverage. On the former basis it can be classified into vertical and horizontal co-ordination and on the latter basis into internal and external co-ordination.
Vertical and Horizontal Co-ordination (BBA 1st Semester Notes)
Vertical Co-ordination : The function of vertical co-ordination is to translation external environmental requirements into organisational activity and them to integrate this activity with overall organisational goals. The terms vertical co-ordination is used when co-ordination is to be achieved between various links or different levels of the organisational units. Vertical co-ordination is needed to ensure that all levels in the organisation act in harmony and in accordance with organisation act in harmony and in according with the help of directing and controlling. There is no doubt that the power or delegated authority will carry great weight but vertical co-ordination can not be achieved by the more weight of authority itself. This should rather come about as a by product of superior’s efficient and expert performance of his managerial functions.
Horizontal Co-ordination (BBA Notes)
Horizontal Co-ordination : The function of horizontal co-ordination is to integrate the work flow with in the organisation as a whole and between organisation sub units in particular. The horizontal co-ordination is used when co-ordination has to be achieved between departments on the same level in the managerial hierarchy. Thus, when co-ordination is brought about between production department, sales department, personnel department, etc., it is said to be horizontal co-ordination.
Co-ordination of various functions between inter dependent mangers of different departments is facilitated in a small enterprise due to proximity of working arrangement, close contacts and short lines of communication. However, when a large company is involved, the problems become more complicated and it is the fine art of the superior manager to achieve co-ordination in this horizontal sense.
Internal and External Co-ordination (BBA Notes)
Internal and External Co-ordination : Co-ordination between the different units of an organisation is knows as internal co-ordination. Such coordination requires synchronization of the activities and efforts of individuals in different departments, plants, branches, offices and divisions of the enterprise. external coordination refers to coordination between an organisation and its external environment comprising of government, research institutions, Etc. External coordination is essential for the survival of the organisation just like internal coordination. No organisation operates in a vaccum. In order to survive and succed it must continuously harmonise its working with the external forces influcencing it.
Procedural Land Substantive Co-ordination
Procedural Land Substantive Co-ordination : According to Herbert A. Simon, procedural coordination implies the specification of the organisation in itself i.e., the generalized description of the behaviour and relationships of the members of the organisation. Such coordination establishes the lines of authority of each member of the organisation. On the other hand substantive coordination is concerned with the content of the organisation’s activities. For instance, in an automohile plant an organisaion chart is an aspect of procedural coordination while blue prints for the engine block of the car being manufactured are an aspect of substantive coordination.
Meaning of Motivation (BBA Study Material)
Motivation is an important person to give their best performance actuating the people to work for the accomplishment of objectives of the organisation.
Motivation is an important factor which encourages person to give their best performance and help in reaching enterprise goals. A strong positive motivation will enable the increased output of employees but a negative motivation will reduce their performance.
Definitions of Motivation
- In the words of G. Scott, “Motivation a means the process of stimulating people to action to accomplish the desired goals.”
- In the words of Dubin, “Motivation is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisaiton.”
- In the words of Dale S. Beach, “Motivation can be defined as a willingness to expand enery to achieve a goal or a reward.”
- “A motivation is an inner state that energizes, activates or moves and directs or channel behaviour towards goals.”