BBA Computer Application MDU Notes
BBA Computer Application MDU Notes:-
Q.1. What is Computer? Explain its Characteristics and Limitations?
Ans. Definition :- A computer is a fast electronic device, processing the Input data according to the Instructions given by the Programmer/User and provides the desired information as an output. The word ‘Computer’ is basically derived form the word ‘computer’, which means to calculate some thing. But in today’s scenario if we told that computer is just a calculation machine, it is not true. We can do a lot more than calculation. Let’s take few examples — Your Bio-Data, Examination Records, Admission Register, Airlines and Rail Reservation etc. In all these cases you will find apart form just calculation the computer is managing information and data. So, Computer is electronic devices (Machine) which accept our data, process them and gave output.
Data— Collection of facts or figures.
Information— Processed data is known Information. Data and
Input— instructions given to computer. Manipulation of
Output— Information obtained after processing of data
Characteristics of Computer:-
(1) Speed: – A computer is a very fast device. It can perform a large amount of work in a few seconds. Where human being worked a particular work for the whole day, the computer does the same in a very short time. Today, computers can perform 100 million computations in one second. The speed of computers is measured in terms of microseconds, Nano seconds and even in Pico seconds.
Where 1 second—10o micro second
—10o nano second
—10o Pico second
(2) Accuracy:— The computer is 100% accurate and capable to perform arithmetical calculation and logic operations with the same accuracy. It can never make mistakes. All mistakes are done by users. The cause of errors may be due to inaccurate feeding data or due to wrong setting of the programmer. The accuracy of a computer is Illustrated well by the term GIGO; i.e. Garbage In Garbage Out, which means if faulty instruction is provided for processing the data, obviously the wrong answer will be given.
(3) Diligence:— A computer can operate twenty-four hours continuously without taking any rest. It has no feelings or no emotions, if you work continuously for 3 hours, you feel lack of concentrate but a computer is free from these and you will get the result you want with the same speed and same accuracy.
(4) Versatility:— Versatility is one of the most wonderful features of the computer. One moment, it is preparing the results of a particular examination, the next moment it is busy in preparing electricity bills, and in between, it may be helping an office secretary to trace an important letter in seconds. It can do multiple works at the same time. It also used in data processing jobs, weather forecasting, ticket reservation purpose, multimedia designing, animations, accountancy, etc. has made more memory or storage capacity than
(5) High Memory:— computer-human beings. It can store millions of data and instructions, which can be retrieved and recalled even after a number of years. This is not possible in case of the human brain.
(6) Automation:— Computers are automatic in operation. It means once the data and instructions are fed to a computer, human interventions are not required. The computers manipulate the data according to the instructions and continue doing so until the last instruction is executed.
(7) The superiority of Manufacture:— Computer hardware is manufactured with the best materials by the most sophisticated processor. It has the superiority of manufacture as compared to other machines.
(8) Reduce Paper Work:—
(9) Solve Complete Problems:— Computer solved those problems which are not solved
by human being computer solved the problems in seconds.
Limitations of Computer:-
The main limitations of computers are as follows:—
Dependency:— Fully Dependent upon human beings.
Lack of Intelligence:— Computers do not have their own Intelligence and hence cannot think, for example, a computer can create music but cannot tell its quality. In other words, the computer has no brain.
Lack of Detecting Errors:— Computer can detect only syntax error, it cannot detect flaw or error in logic.
Lack of Capability:— It has no Capability to take any decision by itself, as a human being, it cannot judge by itself for any valid or non-valid data.
No I.Q. :— A computer is not a magical device. It can only perform tasks that a human being can. The difference is that it performs these tasks with unthinkable speed and accuracy. It possesses no intelligence of its own. It I.Q. is zero, at least today. A computer cannot take its own decision in this regard.
No Feelings:— Computers have no feelings and no emotion because they are the machine. Lack of Creativity and imagination It does not have intuition and cannot draw a conclusion without going through all the intermediate steps.
Experience:— Computers don’t learn from experience.
Q. 2 What is Computer? What are various Applications of Computer?
What is a Computer? What is the scope or impact of computer in the business application?
A computer is a fast electronic device, processing the Input data according to the Instructions given by the Programmer/User and provides the desired information as an output.
The word ‘Computer’ is basically derived from the word ‘computer’, which means to calculate something. But in today’s scenario, if we told that a computer is just a calculation machine, it is not true.
We can do a lot more than calculation. Let’s take a few examples — Your Bio-Data, Examination Records, Admission Register, Airlines and Rail Reservation, etc. In all these cases you will find apart from just calculation the computer is managing information and data. So, Computer is electronic devices (Machine) which accept our data, process them and give output.
Application of Computer in Business
Computers have completely altered the structure of business. Large volumes of accounting and record keeping data can be manipulated, organized, stored, retrieved and used for specific purposes. Bills and statements can be processed and sent to customers in much less time and much less effort than would be required for doing the same process manually financial projections are made with greater ease. Planning and decision making thus be cover more efficient and accurate.
In manufacturing industries, Computers direct production, guide machine tools, control quality design parts and monitor inventory levels. Modern banking would be impossible without computers. In modern officer, word processing saver time for people at all levels in the organization and helps ensure more accurate letters, reports, and memos.
The scope of Computers in Business offices:— (1) Personal Management
· Manpower Planning
· Human Resource Development
· Selection and Recruitment
· Compensation and benefits
· Skill Inventory Management
· Establishment and Personnel records
· Placement Modules
· Training and development
· Career Planning/Promotion
(2) Financial Management
· Invoicing, Sales Ledgers and Statements
· Stock Control and Evaluations
· Payroll, Pay slips, Tax Statement
· Purchase Ledger
· Credit Control
· Sales and Purchase Ledger Analysis
· Budgetary Control
· Cost accounting, Job costs, Standard costs, Work in Progress, Labors registers
· Asset Registers
· Hire Purchase Records
(3) Office Management
· Annual Reports
· Production Schedules
· Loan Analysis
· Graphic Trends
· Managing Reports, Directories, Catalog’s, Bulletins, Letters, Memos
(4) Material Management
· To Minimize Inventories
· Material Planning/Specifications
(5) Purchasing Management
· Calling Tenders
· Comparing Tenders
· Supplies Evaluation
· Placing Orders/Recorders
(6) Marketing Management
· Demand forecasting
· Sales Management
· Consumer behavior
· Channels of Distribution
· Pricing decisions
· Market Research
· Transport Analysis
· Advertising Strategies
· Product Mix
· Planning and Control of sales
Q.3. What is a Computer? Describe the functioning of a computer with its block diagram?
Ans. Definition:— A computer is a fast electronic device, processing the Input data according to the Instructions given by the Programmer/User and provides the desired information as an output.
The word ‘Computer’ is basically derived from the word ‘compute’, which means to calculate some thing. But in today’s scenario, if we told that a computer is just a calculation machine, it is not true. We can do a lot more than calculation. Let’s take a few examples — Your Bio-Data, Examination Records, Admission Register, Airlines and Rail Reservation, etc. In all these cases you will find apart from just calculation the computer is managing information and data. So, Computer is electronic devices (machine) which accept our data, process them and gave output.
A computer System is defined as a set of interacting elements, responding to inputs so as to produce outputs. The computer system also consist of the following elements.
Ø C.P.U (Central Processing Unit)
Ø Input Devices
Ø Output Devices
Ø Storage Devices
Ø System Software
Ø Application Software
Ø Utility Software
Ø Trained Computer Professionals
Hardware:- Hardware refers to all the physical parts and components of the computer.
Ø Central Processing Unit : — The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Microprocessor is the heart of the computer, where all the processing of the data is carried out. The data and instructions that are entered into the computer system are fed into the CPU before the final results are displayed on the Output Unit. The CPU stores the data and instructions, does all the calculations and problem solving, and also controls the functions of all other units.
The components of the CPU are as follows:
(1) Memory Unit or Storage Unit
(2) Arithmetic & Logical Unit (ALU) (3) Control Unit
Memory Unit or Storage Unit :— The data and instructions that are entered into the computer system through input units have to be stored inside the computer before the actual processing starts. Similarly, the results produced by the computer after processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer system before being passed on to the output units. It provides space for storing data and instructions, space for intermediate results, and also space for the final results.
In short, the specific functions of the storage unit are hold (store) :
1. All the data to be processed and the instructions required for processing
(received from input devices).
2. Intermediate results of processing.
3. Final result of processing these results are released to an output device.
Arithmetic Logic Unit (A.L.U) :- This unit performs all the basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and also logical operations such as comparison of numbers etc. The ALU is responsible for actual execution of instructions during processing operation. The data and instructions that are stored in memory unit are transferred into ALU for processing when needed and transferred back to memory when processing is over. After the completion of processing, the final results are stored in memory before sent to the output unit. ALU also consist a number of small storage locations termed as registers. This register is of very small capacity and contains the data and instructions which are to be executed next.
Following are the main functions of ALU :—
(1) It operates on data available in main memory.
(2) It caries out all arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
(3) It caries out all logic operations like comparison, selection and merging of data
(4) After processing the data, it sends back the processed data to main memory.
Control Unit :—The control Unit in every computer is the supervising element. It does not perform any processing but acts as a central control system for all other components of a computer system. This unit maintains the exact sequence in which the instructions are to be executed and directs the operations of the entire computer system. It co-ordinates all the activities of various elements of computer system skill. It is termed as heart of computer as in controls all hardware operation.
Functions of the Control Unit are:—
(1) It gives the command to transfer data from the input device to memory and from memory to the arithmetic & Logical Unit.
(2) It transfers the results from memory to Output Unit. (3) It stores the program in memory, takes instruction one by one, interprets them and issue appropriate signals to the other units of a computer to execute them. IMAGE
INPUT DEVICES: – In a computerized system, before any processing takes place, the data and instructions must be fed. This is achieved through the Input Devices, which provide a communication medium between the user and the machine.
The most common of Input devices keyboard, which resembles a typewriter. The help of a keyboard, the user types data and instruction. The other commonly Input devices are mouse, magnetic ink character reader, magnetic tape, magnetic disk, optical mark reader and optical character reader.
Input devices are divided into two categories
(1) Text Input Devices
(2) Cursor Control Devices
· In text input devices the mainly used keyboard.
· Cursor control devices are the mouse, joystick, scanner etc.
In brief, the following functions are performed by the input unit:
· It accepts (reads) data from user.
· It converts the instructions and data into computer acceptable form.
· It passes the converted instructions and data to the computer for processing.
Output Devices :-
When Processing is complete in the CPU, the information produced is stored in the Memory in a computer understandable format. This information has to be transcribed into a form that can be read by the user, which is achieved by Output Devices. The most commonly used Output Devices are VDU (Visual Display Unit), Printer, Plotter, etc.
There are two types of outputs produced by these devices:
(1) Hard Copy
Hard Copy: – An output produced on a printer or a plotter.
Soft Copy:- An output on the VDU or stored on magnetic media (Disks and Tapes).
In brief, the functions of the Output units are:-
· To accept the results processed by CPU which is in coded form?
· To convert coded results to a human acceptable form.
· To produce the results to users.
Storage Devices:- As we aware, that whenever data or instruction is fed to the computer, it is stored within it. Computers store data, instruction and the output of a process in a storage device.
Storage devices are categorized as:
· Primary Storage Devices
· Secondary Storage Devices
Primary Storage Devices:- Primary storage device often referred to as the main memory is the work area within the computer, where the data and instructions are stored. These devices are made up of Capacitors, Transistors and Silicon Chips. This makes access to data and instructions from these devices very efficient. The different kind of primary storage devices available are listed below:
1. RAM (Random Access Memory)
2. ROM (Read Only Memory)
Secondary Storage Devices:- The secondary storage device is a storage medium used for storing data, instruction, and output for archival purposes, so that whenever any data or instruction is required in the future. Different kind of secondary storage devices available is Floppy Disk, Hard Disk, Optical Disk, etc.
Software:- The non-tangible components of the computer system are referred to as Software.
Humanware:— The personnel involved in using and maintaining the computer system form the
Humanware:- They are trained computer professionals and can be a.
Hardware Engineer:- Who takes care of the various components of the computer.
Software Engineer: Who manages and handles the software loaded onto the computer.
Programmer: Who designs various types of software required to work on the computer.
User: Who is the actual user of the computer.