Concept of Internet Tutorial Study Material Notes in Cyber Programming

Concept of Internet Tutorial Study Material Notes in Cyber Programming


The Introduction   of   the Internet  has  led   to the creation Of  revolutionary  means of  sharing  knowledge  across  the globe.  But how much  knowledge  do we  possess  regarding the internet?  Do  we  have  a through  understanding   of, say The undertakings  that  characterize   in the

Meaning of Internet

Internet means  Networks of  Networks  . The internet  is  a   communication  System  that  has  brought  a wealth  of  information    to our finger  tips  and organised  it  for our use .  The Internet is  Structured  organized  System.

The  Internet  is  world  wide  web  (global)  System  of  inter Connected   Computer  networks  that use  the standard  internet  protocol  suite(TCP/IP)  to serve  billions   of users  across  the  world . it  is  the network  that  consist  of millions of   private, public, academic, business and government  networks  that  are linked  by  electronic   and optical  networking  technologies.




  • Computer that request  for information   are  called  as Clients
  • Computer that process   the  request   and  provides  information   to Client  are  Called  as Server.

History  Of   Internet

The  ARPA(Advance   Research   Project  Ajency)  in  Department  of  Defence  (DOD)  finded a  way  to connects  computers.  So that  the  researches  they  funded  Could    Share  their   findings  , there   by  reducing   cost  and  eliminating   duplication   of    efforts .


At   an  ACM(Association   for  Computing  Machinary ) meeting  ARPA  persented  its   idea  for   ARPANET   a  small  Network   of  Connected  Computer.


ARPANET  was   a  reality  four nodes:-

  • University of  California  at  Los Angles
  • University of California  at   Santa
  • Standford Research
  • University of utaha,  were   Connected  to  form  a


Vint  Cert   and  Beta  Kahn , both  were  a part   of  Core  ARPANET  group  , Collaborated  on  what    they  called  Interneting  Project.


Their    paper  outlined  the  protocols  to achieve  end to end  delivery   of packets  . This   paper  includes  the Concept  TCP’S   feature  Like  encapsulation  ,  data gram  and  function   of  gateway.


Authorities    made  a  decision   to Split   TCP  into  two  protcol  . i.e, TCP , and  IP. IP  would  handle  datagram   routing  while   TCP  would   be  responsible  for  higher   Level   Fucntion. Like   Segmentation, reassembly  and  error    electicity.


Tim  Berner’s lee develop  world  wide web. www is respiratory of Information likes together from points all over the world.


www Shortly know as web, is a System of Interlink Hyper  Text documents accessed via internet.

www  is an open source information space where documents and other was resources are identified by URLs interlinked by hypertext links and can be accessed  via interlinked by hypertext links and can be  accessed via internal www was invented by English Scientist Tim Berner’s Lee in 1989 working in Jeneva ,Switezerland.


A Webapage is a web document i.e, suitable for the www and web browser .A web browser display a web page an the monitor on the mobile device. A web page may Consist of file of Static text, images, video, animation, and other multimedia. A webpage may also contain hyperlinks, where each link points to another webpage. As we click on the link the browser program fetches the page.


A WebSite is Simply a collection of interlinked webpages. It is a set of related webpage typically  Served from Single web domain.

These website consist of WebPages that contains following elements.

  • Textual Information
  • Non-Textual information
  • Static image, typically GIFs,jpg,etc.
  • Animated image, typically animated gif or may be flash image, java, applets.
  • Audio, typically,MIDI,Vedio,typically etc.
  • Interactive Information
  • Hyperlinks
  • Forms
  • Hidden Inforamtion
  • Css
  • Comments
  • Scripts

Web Browser: The Software programe that after the that after the facility to retrieve the information stored in the web page are called as web  browser.

It is a Software for retrieving, traversing, presenting information resources stored as the www. The Hyperlinks present in the resources enable user to navigate between the web page using the browser.

Web browser does the following

  1. Connect to an appropriate Server
  2. Query the Server for the information to be read or write.
  3. Provide an interface to read the information provided by the server.


  1. User Interface
  2. Privacy and Security
  3. Extensiblelity


  1. Google chrome(48.0.2564.109)
  2. Mozilla Firefox(51.1)
  3. Opera(43.0.2442.806)
  4. Internet Explorer(11.0)
  5. Safari(5.1.7)
  6. Maxthon(
  7. Microsoft Edge(10)
  8. UC Browser(6.01807.1000)
  9. NetScape Navigator(
  10. Comodo Dragan(

Web Server

These are the information repositories which Store web page in the form of directories on file and provides than files to be read to the clients.

The Servers Computer runs a Special Software Called as a web server that allows the following.

  1. Website Management
  2. Accepts Client request for information
  3. Processing the request by interacting with the database.
  4. Respond to the Client i.e request by providing the processed information.

This return can refer to either the entire the entire Computer System, an Specifically or Software that accepts and Supervieses the client request.

The Primary function of WebServer is to Store, Process is to Store, process and deliver the webpage to the client.

  • The Communication between the Client and the server take place using HTTP(Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)

Search Engine

  • Search Engine is a software System or a tool e designed to search  for  the information on www. This information can be Collection of webpage that content text, images etc or other kinds of file. So, Search Engines also mines data available in the database or other directories. The Search results are generally presented in a line of results often referred to as Search Engine. Result Pages

Ex. Google, bing, yahoo, Ask, msn  etc.

URLs  –Uniform Resource Locator:

Url’s  is a Standard for Specifying any kind of information.



ISP’s  became to immerge in Late 1980’s and early 1990’s are the business and organizations that provide users with internet accesses and related Services.

These Providers Connect Customers to Customers of other Services by means of internet or network. Also called as Internet access Provider.

These  are the companies that provides tele-communication Service including data communication access and telephone connection.

ISP’s may be Commercial, non-profit privately or Community owned.

Eg:- idea, Airtel, BSNL, MTNL, Reliance etc.

Factors to  be Considered by choosing ISP

  1. Bandwidth(Speed)
  2. Cost(Setup and Service both)
  3. Availability(reach)
  4. Reliability(downtime)
  5. Convenience(mobility)

Services of ISP’s

Internet  Service

Domain  Name  registration

Dial-up access

Leased-Line access

Types of Links to ISP’s


RF bands are used  in place of telephone or Cable Network.

2.Mobile Connections

Mobile Internet Connections provide good speeds and allow us to access the internet.

3.  Hotspots

These are the sited that after internet access over wireless LAN by the way of router that than Connects to an ISP. HostSpots Utilize  WIFI technology which allows electronic.

Devices to connect to the internet or exchange  data wirelessly through radio waves.


This high Speed Internet Connection Provided through either cable or telephone line by the Company Broad-Band- Internet  Connection Such as  Digital Subscriber Line(DSL) and Cable are considerd high bandwidth Connection.

5.Satellite Communication:-

For long distance Communication Satellite are used for connection(wireless).

Equipment’s for connecting to the ISP

1.Mobile Phone or Computers

2.MODEM(Modulator & Demodulator)

3.satellite  receiver

4.Telephone Line

5.Cables(fiber optic Cables)

Connecting  to the Internet

Internet Connectivity:-

To Connect our Computer to the Ethernet, we need to take Certain decisions such as:-

What  type of connection  we want.

What type of Services we need.

Do we need Significant bandwidth to send information or we use it primarily to server  the internet.

1.Types  of Internet Account

To Connect to the internet we run  a Communication program to dial-up the number of the ISP. When the remote System answer the phone.our modern tops to the other System and Connections is establish,

There are Possible two types of Connection.


Point to Point Protocol account.

2.Shell Account

3.Dedicated Line Account


Point-to-Point Protocol Account.

  • This type of account lets you connect. Your computer directly to the internet.
  • When you have a PPP account, your Computer is full fledged internet lost. During the time you are Connected
  • This means the client program you used to access the various etharnet Services runs on your Computer.


1.Low Cost alternative to permanent, dedicated access.

2.A direct Connection to the Internet.

3.You don’t have to bother with transferring file to and from your service provider’s Computer and your pc; download files directly  to your computer.

4.A PPP/SLIP Connection is required to benefit from the multimedia environment of a the www, including graphics sound and animation.

2.Shell Account

With this account, we actually do a work on the remote computer. Our Computer is not on the net itself.Rather our Computer emulates a terminal which allows us to work directly with the remote host.

When we use a shell account the only program run  on our computers is terminal emalutes .All the internet  Clients actually run on the remote computer.


  • The Interface is text based not graphically.
  • Our Computers is not  on the Internet.

Medium Used by Internet Connection

Types of Connections




Modem  is used for modulation and demodulation. It is an electronic device that is used to Share information between the user. It Converts analog  Signal into digital Signal and vice-versa.

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Gateway Access

Gateway Access is  known as Level two Connection. It is a access to the Internet to the Internet from a network, which is not on the internet. The gateway allows the two different types of network to “talk” to each other But the user of the Gateway Internet have limited access to the Internet. They might not be  able to us all  the tools available on the internet.The Local ISP normally defines this  Limitations. Good Example of network with Level one connectivity with in india is that of VSNL(Videsh Sanchar Nigm Limited). All access to internet from india are through VSNL gateway.

Dial –up Connection

It is also known as Level two Connection. This provides connection to intranet through a dial-up terminal connection. The Computer, which provides access is known as “Host” and the Computer that receives the access is “client” or “Terminal”. The Client Computer uses modem to access “host” and act as it is a terminal directly Connected to the host. The Modem must dial the telephone every time it wants to connect to the internet. Most ISP’s Support modems speeds 14.4kbps and 56kbps.

Leased Connection:

Leased Lines are dedicated Circuits that is provided by basic Service Provider, which provides permanent Connectivity to the Internet.

They  Provide permanent connection unlike dial-up access that provides temporary connection.

It is the Very much secured dedicated and most expansive. Level of Internet Connection with leased Connection Your Computer is dedicated and directly connected to the Internet using high speed transmission lines. It is on-line’s twenty hours  and days in a week.

They are particularly used for  organization like banks in financial institutions, Corporate Sectors,educational and RAD Organization,government and military etc.

DSL Connections

Digital Subscriber line(DSL) is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of a Local telephone network. DSL  Originally stood fro digital Subscriber Loop. DSL Service is deliverd Simultaneously with  wires telephone Service on the same telephone Line. This is a possible because DSL uses higher frequency abnd for data Seprated by filtering .

The data bit rate of consumer DSL Service typically range from 256 kbps to 40 mbps.


1.Higher Bandwidth

2.CheapLine charges from the phone memory

3.Good fro ‘bursty’ traffic patterns

4.Integration : will easily interface with ATM and WAN technology.


1.No Current Standardization

2. Expansive

3.Distance Dependence